Bridging the Gaps: Integrated cross - border business infrastructure and services in Silistra District - Calarasi County
Romana Bulgara Engleza

3. 1.Information regarding the labour market in Silitra Region and Călărași County

The state of the labour market in Silistra region is a consequence of the economic environment’s state, which is characterised by shrinking, limited funds, lack of interest from foreign investors, poor technologic innovation and low labour productivity. The area’s economic profile has an impact on the demographic tendencies – decrease and aging of the workforce. To these there is also the add of the contradiction between available qualifications with the employers’ demand.

The actual data and the dynamic of indicators that define the workforce market from Silistra region were analysed in this section – the number of registered people, the structure according to sex, the structure according to age, the professional structure, qualifications, the education structure, the long term unemployment, people with a handicap, the workforce demand, the primary and secondary workforce market, the number of employed people.

The period of time studied is 2008 - 2013 (the information is being presented on the 30th of June of the current year). The wide range is selected in order to cover the years before the crisis and to allow the study of tendencies.

A necessary clarification in this section is that the study refers to facts and numbers about unemployment obtained from the Employment Agency – ‘Regional Employment Service’ – Ruse, based on a request filed in accordance with the Law for information access.

The image of the workforce market from Silistra region, at the end of June 2013 looked as it follows – in the three labour office from Silistra, Tutrakan and Dulovo, the number of registered unemployed people was 8491. Their number decreased by 279 in relation to the end of May 2013. The people that registered for finding a workplace are also 135 employed people, 54 retired people and 19 students.

The unemployment rate for Silistra region, based on the official information for the country published by the Employment Agency was 18.7% in June 2013 and 19.3% in the previous month. As a comparison – in the same period, the country’s unemployment rate was 10.7 percent, and in the areas of the Northen-Central Region – Ruse region, the unemployment rate was 10.1%.

In the places of Silistra region, the absolute unemployement number and the relative rate are as follows: the higest level of unemployment is in Kaynardzha place – 41.8% (651 unemployed peiple), followed by Glavinitsa place – 38.3% (1278), Alfatar place – 30.5% (303), Dulovo place – 25.2% (2437), Sitovo place – 24.7% (372) and Tutrakan place – 17.5% (917). The smallest unemployment rate is that of Silistra municipality – 10.9% (2533).

According to the professions, the number of recorded unemployed people is as follows: unskilled 59%, skilled - 28%, specialists - 13%.

Depending on their education, from the total number of registered unemployed people, the ones that dominate the region are people with primary- and middle school education, which represent 54%, people with high school education were 40% and graduates with higher education - 6%.

The distribution on age groups shows that the largest unemployment rate among all the people registeres is for the ones that are over 50 years old - 39%, for the peop;e that are between 30 and 49 years old, it is of 44%, and for young people upt to 29 years old - 17%.

The information below regarding the unemployment in Silistra region will be analysed in absolute values at the end of June 2013, as well as in comparative analysis, at the end of June in every year after 2008-2013, which allows to highlight the tenedencies in the employment market.

The unemployment recorded in Silistra region on the 30th of June 2013 in an absolute value is of 8491 people. This number is about 35% higher than the number from 2008 - 6325 people. For the entire period of 2008 – 2013, the number of recorded unemployed people rises, as the largest number recorded was in the year 2010 - 9006 people, and in the last years, unemployment has maintained at approximately the same level, with a tendency to rise.



Source: Employment Agency, DRCZ-Ruse

The structure of unemployment according to sexes remains in the same tendency, regardless of the change in the absolute number of recorded people – each year there are more and more uneomployed women than men. On the 30th of June 2013, the number of women without a workplace was 4553, and of men without a workplace - 3938 people. In the year with the hihest unemployment rate – 2010, the number of women without a workplace was 4919, and of unemployed men, 4087. Even then, the men without a workplace were fewer (4087 people) than the unemoloyed women (4116 people), in the most favourable year for employment - 2008.

The structure of workforce according to the sex -  the number of people

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Women

Number

4116

4430

4919

4545

4565

4553

Men

Number

2209

3197

4087

3673

3774

3938

Source: Employment Agency, DRSZ-Ruse

Regarding the structure of unemployment according to age for all the three groups, an increase was observed: people under 29, 30 - 49 year old people, people over 50 years old. On the 30th of June 2013, there were 1395 unemployed young people under 29 in the first group, 3761 people with the age of 30-49 years old – in the second group, 3335 people over 50 years old – in the third group.

The dynamic in the unemployment structure according to age groups which show the fastest accession rates are the social group of people up to 29 years old, where in 2008 there were 907 people, and on the 30th of June 2013 there were 1395 people – the difference in the absolute value of the unemployed people in the peropd studies in the first and last moment was of 53.8%. With 45.66% more unemployed people with the ages between 30 and 49 years old on the 30th of June 2013, in comparison with 30th of June 2008. Compared to these two groups, the unemployed people group over 50 years old grew gradually – a growth of 17.6 %, in relation to the two values for the number of unemployed people up to the 30th of June 2013 and the 30th of June 2008. The top values for all the three groups were in the year 2010. The details are presented in the table below.

The structure of unemployment according to age – the number of people

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Up to 29 years

No.

907

1203

1419

1309

1433

1395

Between 30 and 49 years

No.

2582

3252

3963

3599

3599

3761

Over 50 years

No.

2836

3172

3624

3310

3307

3335

Source: Employment Agency, DRSZ-Ruse

Regarding the structure according to the professional qualification of the unemployed people from Silistra region, it shows that it isn’t different from the image of other regions in Bulgaria – the lagest number of people without a workplace are the unskilled people or the ones that don’t have a specialisation, as specialised unemployed people are almost five times fewer than the first type of unemployed people.  Even in the top year for unemployment - 2010, the specialised unemployed people were fewer in the absolute value than the lowest values of specialised unemployed people in the years before the crisis and incomparably fewer than the unskilled and unspecialised people.
The table below shows the structure according to the professional qualification of skilled unemployed people, of specialised unemployed people and of unskilled and unspecialised unemployed people from before the crisis and up to present date – the information is from the 30th of June of the said year.

Structure according to professional qualification

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Skilled

Number

1325

1695

2229

1869

2174

2384

Specialised

Number

769

997

1196

1053

1146

1101

Unskilled or unspecialised

Number

4231

4935

5581

5296

5019

5006

Source: Employment Agency, DRSZ-Ruse

According to their education, the structure of the unemployed people as a high risk group, we can identify the people with primary school or inferior studies - 4587 people on the 30th of June 2013, more than half of all the unemployed people from that time. The smallest number of unemployed people are the ones with higher studies.

Structure according to occupation

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

With higher studies

Number

325

441

553

517

575

530

With high school professional studies

Number

1523

1967

2578

2155

2553

2745

With high school and middle school studies

Number

381

446

610

510

554

629

With primary school studies or no studies at all

Number

4096

4773

5265

5036

4657

4587

Source: Employment Agency, DRSZ-Ruse

Long term unemployed people (over a year) represent a relatively constant number – there were 3698 people in 2008, and on the 30th of June 2013, there were 3572 people, the smallest number of people being of 2772, recorded before the crisis.

Also, a relatively stable number is the one of people with a handicap - 434 people on the 30th of June 2008 and 533 people on the 30th of June 2013, without any major fluctuations during the years.

The workforce demand on the primary labour market has slowly but constantly increased each year – from 1351 workplaces in 2008 to 1693 workplaces in 2013 (the information is for six months, cumulated for January-June). The information from the Employment Agency DRZS - Ruse shows that during the same time 2008-2013 the number of vacant workplaces on the primary and secondary employment market remained a relatively unchanged value. This means that the number of grant-aided workplaces in the structure of the employment decreases – if for the first six months of 2008, the grant-aided workplaces were 1913, and in the first six months of 2013, the number was of 1604.

Searching the primary market employment (available stated workplaces)

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Available stated workplaces

No.

1351

1414

1602

1581

1623

1693

Accessing the workplaces through DBT

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

On the primary employment market

No.

1247

1289

1465

1481

1466

1624

 

 

Searching the general market employment (available stated workplaces – primary and secondary labour market)

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Available stated workplaces

No.

3264

3319

2456

2662

3214

3297

Fully accessing the workplaces (through DBT and without it)

Year

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

On the primary employment market and grant-aided workplaces

No.

3267

3245

2504

2501

2717

3043

Source: Employment Agency, DRZS-Ruse

The analysis of the statistical indicators of Călărași County shows that the unemployment rate in the last years tends to decrease during 2005 - 2008, then due to the economic crisis, it is in a continuous rise. In 2011 in Calarasi, the unemployment rate was of 10.4% - which placed the County on the second rank on national evel, with an unemployment rate over the national average (7.4%). Also, it was found that in 2011, the unemployment rate was easily larger for men (10.5%) than for women (10.3).

Moreover, the data from 2011 indicate a lower unemployment rate within the population with an age between 55-64 years old and an increased rate among the young people aged 15 - 24.

The recorder unemployed people and the level of unemployment in Călărași County


Year

Unemployed people registered at the unemployment agencies (number)

Unemployment level
(%)

Total

Women

Men

Total

Women

Men

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2009

 9861

3630

 6231

 9,2

6,7

11,9

2010

 9630

3645

 5985

 8,8

6,8

10,6

2011

 6688

2762

 3926

 6,3

5,2

 7,0

The development of Romanian society in the last years has affected the economic reforms, especially due to the economic crisis, with strong changes on the employment market. The change of social conditions has lead to the reduction of the natural increase of the population, temporary and permanent migration. There is a clear tendency of the aging of the population.

The labour resources, meaning the active age population, include the men with ages between 16-64 years old, women between 16-59 years old, according to the national legislation in force, from 2011. Based on the decrease of the birth rate starting with 1989, the workforce rate from the total population rises. In Calarasi County, the workforce rate has increased during 2004 - 2006 and it has remained relatively constant in the following four years, as it increased again in 2008 - 2011.

Regarding the distribution of employed people on places, there is a tendency for expansion at the level of urban areas and a slight decrease in the rural areas.

The employed population on districts of Romanian national economy  (in thousands of people)


Year

Total economy

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Industry

Și anume:

Constructions

Extractive industry

Processing industry

Thermal and electric energy, gas, hot water and air-conditioning production and supply

Water supply, sewage, waste management

2011

99,2

49,1

16,1

0,1

13,4

0,4

2,2

3,4


Year

Retail and wholesale, vehicle and motorcycle repairs

Transport and storage

Hotels and restaurants

Information and communication

Financial mediation and insurances

Real estate

Professional, scientific and technical activities

2011

8,8

3,8

1,7

0,3

0,6

0,1

1,2


Year

Administrative and support services activities

Public administration and defence, national securities

Education

Health and social welfare

Culture, entertainment and recreation

Other srvices and activities

2011

2,4

2,9

4,1

4,0

0,5

0,2

Nett average salary in Călărași County - 2011


Economic activities

Monthy net salary (lei)

Total economy

1123

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

1022

Industry - total

1205

  - extractive

2089

  - processing

1146

  - Thermal and electric energy, gas, hot water and air-conditioning production and supply

2521

  - Water supply, sewage, waste management

1190

Constructions

983

Retail and wholesale, vehicle and motorcycle repairs

861

Transport and storage

1194

Hotels and restaurants

705

Information and communication

1219

Financial mediation and insurances

2298

Real estate

758

Professional, scientific and technical activities

1109

Administrative and support services activities

774

Public administration and defence, national securities

1613

Education

1283

Health and social welfare

972

Culture, sports and recreation

1003

Other services and activities

679

 

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